The word “strategy” originates from the battlefield, but we now use it in business, social innovation, and in our daily lives. One definition of strategy is “a plan of action designed to achieve a goal.” Strategy could be a plan for directing troops and military operations to win a war, or for figuring out a way to make your social venture succeed.

Another way to define strategy is “figuring out the best way to get from here (current state) to there (desired state or goal).” To give a daily life example, say you have to run errands around town. The current state is a to-do list with five tasks in five different locations. Your desired state is to take care of these tasks as quickly as possible so you can go back to the important work of running your business. You need a strategy to help you save time on errands, so you plan a route that groups your stops together in a logical order that saves you travel time. Or, maybe you step back, do the math, and realize that the time you spend traveling around town running errands is actually not the best use of you time when you could stay in the office managing your business and generating revenue. In that case, you know it’s time to hire an assistant. Weighing the options and choosing a plan is strategy.

I have strategies to help me write. The current state of this article is a bunch of research notes, internalized knowledge, and an outline. Given my busy schedule and tight deadline, my desired state is a finished, quality article in as little time as possible. Knowing my own work habits, I chose a strategy based on focused time blocking. I employ multiple tactics to support this core writing strategy. For example, I block out time over the weekend and during the evenings when I can write without distractions; I make sure I have food at home so I am not interrupted; I make sure I take breaks so I don’t burn out; and I separate research, writing, and editing as distinct tasks, rather than trying to multitask.

The point of these examples is that we devise strategies all the time, sometimes deliberately and sometimes unconsciously. As the author of this article, my desired state is for you, the reader, whatever your present state, to understand the importance of stepping back and making conscious and mindful strategies so that your ventures succeed.


Maybe you have already started your project or launched your social venture, or you are interested in starting one. How do you start? What is the next step? Is this meeting worth taking? Whose email should you answer first? How do you know if something is worth your time? Maybe you have already assembled your team, learned about operations, built a prototype, and are getting ready to launch. How do you know you are on the right track? How do you make sense of all the complicated moving parts and tasks of starting a venture? Developing an effective strategy will give you the mental tools to help answer these kinds of questions.

You probably already have a strategy, even if you don’t know it. “Figuring things out as they come along” is a kind of strategy, but it is not necessarily the most effective one. The realities and uncertainties of running an enterprise often force us to improvise, but preparation and thinking things through beforehand helps us to optimize and improvise better. Taking some time to develop a strategy means weighing different options and perspectives, and making choices based on educated guesses. A strategy helps you work smarter, not harder. It helps you make choices and prioritize your time. As my Purpose colleague, David Chernicoff, puts it, “Strategy is an attempt to increase one’s own control over, or, to otherwise reduce the randomness of an outcome.” The world may be random, but having a strategy helps us deal with change and uncertainty.

Former general and US president Dwight D. Eisenhower once said, “plans are worthless, but planning is everything.” It is important not to confuse “strategy” with having a business plan or an operational plan, although these can be important elements of a strategy. Strategy is not a product, it is a process. Strategy is not a PowerPoint deck, or a static “deliverable” document, it is the process: research, thinking things through, planning, and then taking action to execute that plan.

No matter what you are trying to achieve, having a strategy means thinking things through beforehand to give you a better chance of achieving your goals. Having a solid strategy helps you make sense of the big picture. It helps you prioritize and sequence the list of things you should do, and it also helps you decide what NOT to do.


There is no one-size-fits-all framework or template for strategy. A good strategic process and plan is one that you can understand, implement, and test. Although, that doesn’t necessarily mean it will be easy to implement, or that the process will be comfortable. It is helpful to motivate yourself and your team with goals and challenges, but it is also important to stay grounded in reality. Dream big, start small, devise a strategy, test it, recalibrate, and repeat.

Here are six steps with questions and considerations to help you get started in developing your own social innovation strategy.

Current State: Where Are You Now?

Know thyself. Before you can change the world with your social innovation, start with yourself. Ask yourself some tough questions. Who are you? What do you know? What bothers you about the current state? What motivates you?

Know others. Who do you know? Who can help you? Who are your customers? Who are your potential competitors?

Know the context. What are other factors that could lead to your success or failure? Make reality your friend. Reframe risk as, “How much can you afford to lose?” There will always be things you don’t know, but don’t let this stop you from getting started.

Desired State: Where Do You Want To Be?

• What are your goals?
• What is your vision?
• What is the kind of world you want to see?
• What does success look like to you?
• Sustainability is the baseline. How would you define impact?
• How would you measure it?

The more detailed and the more vividly you can visualize this desired state, the more effectively you can motivate yourself, and others, to work towards it.

Document and Share

Put your vision, your goals, and your plans in writing. Synthesize what you have learned so far. Does the story make sense? The process of writing helps us to get out of our own heads. If other people can’t understand the strategy, they can’t help you implement it. Share your vision, goals, and theory of change in the form of a story. Go beyond words. Be visual. Use images.


Developing effective strategy means making choices. That means saying “no” to things. Accept that making choices will always have trade-offs and opportunity costs. Mourn these losses, and then move on. Be open to opportunities, but don’t let choice paralyze you. Don’t get distracted with things that don’t align with your strategy or help you get closer to your desired state. Prioritizing includes sequencing tasks and actions. Sometimes “no” means “not now,” the time isn’t right, but maybe it will make sense at some point in the future.


Strategy is only as effective as its execution. If you can’t understand a strategy, you won’t be able to execute on it effectively. Good strategy is simple strategy, even if the devil is in the execution details.

The process of developing a strategy involves wading through a lot of complexity, making sense of it, and then synthesizing and simplifying information so that you can make decisions and take action. For example, Harvard Business School professor Michael Porter explains that there are essentially only three simple generic strategies that give companies a competitive advantage:

• Overall cost leadership. If you can keep your costs lower than the competition, you can make larger profits.
• Differentiation. If your potential customers see what you make or do as unique, you may be able to make more money than others in your field.
• Focus. Rather than spreading yourself too thinly, if you concentrate your efforts on a particular market segment, region, or specific product line, you might be able to out perform the competition.

Test. Recalibrate. Repeat.

You will only know if a strategy works if you test it. If a strategy doesn’t work, learn to let it go. Reassess your assumptions, apply your learning, repeat the process, and test again.

Introduction and Context

Meu Rio (“My Rio” in Portuguese) is a non-partisan civil society organization based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. They design new interfaces for civic participation by creating online tools that connect citizens with government and each other and help to ensure that everyday citizens have a voice in the decisions that are transforming their city. It combines online tools and experiences with online and offline political organizing and public mobilization to bring Cariocas (people of Rio) closer to the democratic decision-making processes of their city.

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Alessandra Orofino and Miguel Lago founded Meu Rio and launched it in partnership with Purpose, and IETS, an urban studies think tank based in Rio. While the organization launched publicly in September 2011, Alessandra and Miguel first conceived of the idea for their hometown in a conversation that they had in 2008. They wondered if there might be a way to tap into online and mobile technologies as tools for progressive social change in Rio, by allowing for a greater degree of public participation and more diverse voices in civic life.

I worked with the Meu Rio founding team as a strategist and designer. In this case study, I used the six steps I introduced in the “Introduction to Strategy for Social Innovators” article. The six steps illustrate how we created the strategic frameworks and systems that allowed us to develop Meu Rio from an idea on paper to a real organization that fosters a vibrant movement that engages thousands of citizens.

Current State: Where Are You Now?

Meu Rio began with a conversation between co-founders Alessandra and Miguel in 2008. At the time of their initial conversation, Facebook had a mere fraction of the users it has today, but in Brazil, the social media site Orkut had a market share of 70% of Brazilian Internet users. Avaaz.org, which has now grown into the world’s largest online campaigning community, was also growing rapidly in Brazil. It was instrumental in helping to pass a national anti-corruption bill. In 2008, there was tremendous online civil society mobilization around human rights, and the Beijing Olympics, which inspired Miguel and Alessandra to think of ways to mobilize people around human rights and social justice. They were also influenced by Rio’s preparations to host the Olympics in 2016, which has also been marred with forced evictions of low income communities and other alleged human rights abuses.

When the Purpose team began to work on Meu Rio in 2010, the “current state” of the project was still very much conceptual. Miguel and Alessandra had written a proposal for the organization based on preliminary research, raised some seed money to fund further strategic and design work, and had begun to build relationships with potential partners.

As part of our process of creating the brand identity for Meu Rio, we began to answer the question, “Who are you?” We immersed ourselves in the life of the city, interviewed residents, studied the visual culture, etc. As part of our fieldwork in Rio, we also wanted to better understand our primary target audience. While Meu Rio aspires to unite Cariocas under a banner of mass digital participation in civic affairs, we were also conscious of the vast class and cultural divides that separate the population. Our principal target audience was digitally connected young people in what the Brazilian government calls “Class C,” a designation of household income that puts them at the “newly middle class” or “lower middle class.” These young people make up a plurality of the population, but their interests are traditionally underserved in the political decision making processes. We found from our landscape analysis that this young population was underserved by existing organizations. They were not yet using the Internet to its full potential to organize and mobilize these young people as a political constituency.

Desired State: Where Do You Want To Be?

We articulated a mission statement for Meu Rio that helps point us towards our desired state: “Our mission is to construct a new political culture with Cariocas and empower common citizens to be able to effectively participate in the creation of public policies.” While we saw the need to change or affect specific public policies, our desired state was broader than that. We are looking to change the attitudes and behaviors of people in Rio; the way they see themselves as citizens, and their feeling of empowerment to affect the civic discourse and political process.

After articulating our visions of a desired state, we set more concrete and measurable desired states. For example, we advocated for extending the sewers and sanitation system to 100% of Rio’s residents by 2016, as well as increasing the municipal education budget to 25%, the amount mandated by the central government. We also set goals for membership growth for Meu Rio for the next four years. If all goes well, our plan will result in financial self-sufficiency driven by member micro-donations, rather than large grants from high-net-worth individuals or foundations.

Document and Share

At the end of the initial Meu Rio strategy phase, we created a document we refer to as a “movement architecture,” which synthesizes our findings, shares our projections and goals, and introduces the brand identity. This movement architecture served as both a strategy document and a pitch deck (in modified form) for potential funders. The document contains illustrative, creative campaigns for Meu Rio that feature Photoshop mock-ups and user experience flow to really bring the concepts to life. The use of visual storytelling helped show, as well as tell, our desired positioning for the organization, and helped potential funders and team members, who were not initially tech-savvy or familiar with these kinds of social campaigns, understand the activities and activations we were proposing for Meu Rio.


Using the movement architecture deck that we produced, we were able to raise the amount of money needed to build the design and technical infrastructure necessary to launch Meu Rio publicly. The movement architecture featured a variety of mock-ups that illustrated ambitious technical functionality, and campaigns with a degree of “wow factor,” such as an augmented reality smartphone application that would help bring public transparency to municipal spending on infrastructure projects. Such an app would require significant time and resources to build, and it would be a few years before our target audience would have the kind of smartphone access penetration necessary to make such a project successful. While many of us were really attached to this idea, we also recognized that we had to prioritize and sequence our technical development. We created a short list of functionalities that would serve as the MVP (minimum viable product) that we would build first. We chose functionalities based on “bang for the buck.” We prioritized simple petition forms and content templates that would allow us to introduce the organization online and help us build membership first. We saved more complex functionalities for a later date.


We created a series of checklists that served as a kind of “organizational algorithm” that helped codify the organization’s strategy for evaluating and choosing campaigns topics and tactics. These checklists gave team members common, concrete reference points, which they could reference in brainstorms and discussions. They also helped make large abstract strategies more usable as a set of specific questions to consider.

Test. Recalibrate. Repeat.

Since its launch in late 2011, Meu Rio has received recognition from the local press and members of civil society in Rio as a youthful force, shaking up the political and civic life of the city by using internet-based social mobilization. Meu Rio has run several advocacy campaigns around education, sanitation, transportation infrastructure, and the legal recognition of Carioca funk parties, a genre of dance music associated with the favelas of Rio, which have faced crackdowns by law enforcement. Meu Rio has also launched a crowdsourced petition site called Panela de Pressão (Pressure Cooker). It allows Cariocas to create their own hyper-local advocacy campaigns and a collaborative questionnaire called Verdade ou Consequência (Truth or Dare) that helped voters get matched with their ideal municipal council candidate for the October 2012 elections.

We approached each of these projects as tests or experiments. We learned from each of the campaigns and projects, and optimized our systems and processes accordingly. For example, we realized that we had initially been way too ambitious about the time estimates of projects. Everything takes longer than you think. We also redesigned the way project teams are organized and changed project management tools a couple times to adapt to these changing needs. As part of Meu Rio’s culture of embracing open-source and agile methodologies, the organization sees itself as being in a state of perpetual beta and adapts its strategy quickly to seize upon emerging opportunities.

The Social Good Guides (SGG): How would you define strategy?

Lee-Sean Huang: Ha ha, you really started with the big question. “Strategy” is a term that gets thrown around and abused. “Strategic” is often used as a bigger-word substitute for “smart.” A strategy is simply a plan with action steps on how you get from where you are now, to where you want to be. To use a cooking analogy, a strategy is like a recipe. Say you want to bake an apple pie, a recipe helps you know what ingredients you need, and what you need to do to make the pie. A strategy is a recipe for your success. You can always improvise to suit the circumstances. If you are out of apple pie spice, you can substitute cinnamon. That is how the real world works. Things happen and you have to adapt, but a strategy helps you get started, and gives you a guide so you don’t have to scramble and improvise for everything.

SGG: Most startup changemakers are frantically trying to do many things during their first months after their launch. How could having a strategic plan in place make that startup year easier?

LH: A strategic plan gives you a guide for what to do when you are frantically trying to keep up. You have hundreds of emails, meetings to schedule, deliverables and deadlines that are due. A good strategic plan is not just about “what to do” in a lofty abstract sense, but “what to do NEXT.” It should also tell you “what NOT to do,” so you can focus your efforts on the stuff that is really worth your while.

SGG: Most startup changemakers won’t even be familiar with how to think strategically. What questions should they ask themselves with regards to building their enterprise in a strategic way?

LH: First off, I want to say, don’t be afraid of strategy. Strategy is your friend. A true friend will challenge you and ask you tough questions. Questions like, “What do you really want?” and “What are you willing to do to get it?” Strategy starts with asking hard questions about your goals and answering in an honest way.

Reality is also your friend. Ask tough questions and set hard goals to motivate yourself, but also be honest about your assets, your capabilities, and how much you are willing to lose in money, time, opportunity, etc., to pursue your goals.

SGG: In your role as a strategist for Purpose, how do you guide your clients with whatever problems and issues that they hire Purpose to help them with?

LH: That’s another big question that could take days to answer. I think if I were to answer it in one word, I would say “sequencing.” Another word is “prioritizing.” Our clients want to have big impact. They are driven and passionate, but also demanding. They also tend to be obsessive, busy people who want it all and often try to do it all. A big part of what we do is help clients understand all the moving parts of what they are working with, and then help them prioritize and sequence the action steps they should take to more effectively reach their goal.

SGG: Purpose is well known for their strategy work on campaigns. How does strategizing for a startup organization differ?

LH: We actually do both. We do strategy for communications and campaigns, but we also help incubate new organizations. We work on coming up with a business plan, a pitch, a strategic plan, all of that stuff. We have worked on the strategy for a startup campaigning organization, and then planned their campaigns.

The basic structure is the same. Articulate your goals, map and understand the context, and then figure out and sequence a set of action steps that help you achieve those goals.

SGG: You come from a multidisciplinary background. You studied government in college, have experience with design, branding, music production, and have a degree in interactive telecommunications from NYU. How do you think those different disciplines play into creating strategic plans for your clients?

LH: Strategy is about making seemingly disparate parts fit together and having it all make sense. Being a good strategist also means being having a broad background and diverse interests. Creative problem solving is about combining things in new ways, and thinking laterally and obliquely to get around challenges. Being intellectually curious and promiscuous helps train the mind. Tapping into more disciplines, whether by learning ourselves, or bringing in diverse collaborators, helps us expand our toolkit from which we can solve problems.

SGG: What are some mistakes that you have made, or seen organizations make, when designing their strategy. Can you provide an example or case study?

LH: Two big common mistakes are:

1. People make their strategy too complicated. A good strategy is a simple strategy. Just because you worked hard or spent a lot of money on a particular strategy doesn’t mean it should be long and complicated. If your strategy is too complicated, you won’t remember it. You won’t implement it. It’s just a very expensive, fancy PowerPoint presentation.

2. People outsource their strategy. There is nothing wrong with getting expert advice and guidance on your strategy, or paying people to help you figure it out. In fact, I do that for my day job. What I mean when I say, “don’t outsource strategy,” is that strategy is not somebody else’s business, even if you are paying them to figure things out for you. Strategy is the core of what you do. It is YOUR project, YOUR venture. Make sure the strategy makes sense to YOU. If it doesn’t, it isn’t because the strategist you are paying is smarter than you. It is their job to make it work for you. It has to be simple enough for you to understand, even if the process of getting there was hard, or if actually implementing the strategy will be difficult.



“Adaptive Strategy: Employing Not-So-Good Strategy To Get To The Right Strategy” by Stephanie Gerson Lepp

What is the right strategy? Stephanie Gerson Lepp makes the case for adaptive strategy, and argues that there is no such thing as the “right” strategy. Gerson feels the strategies a social changemaker chooses should be based on pragmatic considerations of what is right for the given situation, rather than ideological or industry-specific values.

“Business Planning for Nonprofits: What It Is and Why It Matters” by The Bridgespan Group

This article outlines the four critical pieces of developing a business plan: strategic clarity, strategic priorities, resource implications, and performance measures.

“Creating Shared Value” by Harvard professors Michael Porter and Mark Kramer

Shared value is the concept of aligning economic and social policy to benefit society as a whole.

“The Planning Fallacy and the Innovator’s Dilemma” by Scott Anthony

Planning fallacy refers to the concept that humans are incredibly bad at estimating how long completing a task will take, which applies to company innovation as well, aka the innovator’s dilemma. Scott Anthony advocates for asking critical questions early on in the planning process in order to avoid failure later on.

“The Timeless Strategic Value of Unrealistic Goals” by Vijay Govindarjan

This Harvard Business Review blog article advocates for using ‘strategic intent,’ setting bold or almost unrealistic goals to promote breakthrough thinking. Taking the long view to envision a desired future in disregard of current resource constraints encourages entrepreneurs to identify innovative and creative approaches to reach their strategic goals.


I Have a Strategy (No You Don’t): The Illustrated Guide to Strategy by Howell Malham Just Start: Take Action, Embrace Uncertainty, Create the Future by Leonard Schlesinger and Charles Kiefer


The guides are primarily intended for social entrepreneurs based on the United States, though some of the resources may be generally of interest to an international audience. Please remember that many of the topics covered by the guides, such as corporate structures, laws and legal customs, accounting, business planning, funding and fundraising, etc., vary widely from country to country, and that the information presented here may not be correct, applicable, or relevant to any other country or jurisdiction.

We strongly advise those of you building social impact ventures outside the United States to seek advice and support from reputable professionals who are licensed in your jurisdiction, and/or have area expertise in the country where you plan to build your businesses. For more information, please see our Terms of Use.



Co-Founder and Creative Director, Foossa

Website | Email | LinkedIn | @leesean

Lee-Sean Huang is the founder and creative director of Foossa. He is also affiliated with Purpose, where he has worked as a designer, strategist, and now as an advisor. He has devoted his career to working with social enterprises, nonprofits, and communities to create transformative experiences for positive social change. He has collaborated with organizations including: Avaaz.org, Human Rights Watch, The Tenement Museum, Creative Commons, Made in the Lower East Side, and Afro Brazil Arts.

Lee-Sean has written about networked media and participatory social innovation design in publications like Fast Company, GOOD Magazine, and The Huffington Post. He also co-authored the political science textbook Freedom vs. Security: The Struggle For Balance. Lee-Sean has taught at the School of Visual Arts, the College of Staten Island, General Assembly, and on Skillshare.com. He is also a visiting lecturer at the Mycelium School. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Government from Harvard and a Master’s degree from the Interactive Telecommunications Program at New York University.

Outside of his work at Foossa, Lee-Sean enjoys cooking, music, and capoeira, a Brazilian martial art.



LinkedIn | @mollieruskin

As a cross-sector designer and organizer, Mollie Ruskin is dedicated to creating human-centered solutions to complex social challenges. After serving as a Presidential Innovation Fellow at the Department of Veterans Affairs, Mollie now leads design activities at the US Digital Service. Mollie’s belief in the power of design is founded on a dedication to social impact. She has orchestrated voter registration and GOTV efforts, organized young people around federal climate policy, and served as the aide to a state representative. In 2011, Mollie was a participant in the SVA Impact Design for Social Change residency and went on to lead creative projects at Reboot, a public sector service design and innovation firm. She has designed print and web materials for campaigns, nonprofits, small businesses and government agencies.

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Consultant and Strategist, Social Good Guides

Website | LinkedIn | @think5577

As a Design Strategist and Creative Facilitator, Marc focuses on human-centered design and social innovation. Marc organizes, plans, and leads creative workshops to create positive change and tackle some of today’s gnarly social challenges.

Through playful exercises, he helps people come up with fun, usable, and innovative solutions to challenges. With a graphic and web design background, Marc is able to put ideas generated from these workshops into action, which continues conversations and encourages further collaborations across multiple industries. He loves finding ways for organizations to make huge changes and impacts in unexpected places.

Since 2009, Marc been actively involved, as both an advisor and facilitator, in Project M, an immersive program designed to inspire and educate young creative individuals by proving that their work can have a tangible impact on the world.

A multitude of his collaborative workshops and projects have been featured in the New York Times, Fast Co, AIGA, GOOD, Print, ID, PSFK, and various other design and culture outlets. Marc has lectured and facilitated numerous workshops at a number of distinguished universities and conferences throughout the country. Among other things, Marc is building out Secret Project @ CCA along with teaching in the graphic design department, and leading GOOD SF. He also rides a bamboo bike, makes homemade hot sauce, and unplugs in the outdoors. You can follow him on Twitter, @think557

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Founder, Social Innovators Collective
Series Producer, Art Director and Editor, Social Good Guides

Website | Email | LinkedIn | @shanadressler | @sic_org

In 2011, Shana Dressler founded the Social Innovators Collective with the mission to train and nurture the next wave of social change leaders to help them achieve measurable impact and financial sustainability. Since then she has been creating and leading workshops on business development for social enterprises and nonprofits at General Assembly, New York’s premiere center for entrepreneurship, the Social Good Summit, and social enterprise conferences at Harvard, Columbia, New York University, Brown, the School of Visual Arts, Rhode Island School of Design, and others. In 2014, she designed the curriculum for a startup business school designed to support 21st century entrepreneurial problem-solvers and creatives tackling the most pressing social and environmental challenges of our time.

A deeply committed social entrepreneur, Shana is widely recognized as the first person in New York to organize rigorous educational programming for social entrepreneurs in startup mode. To fill a notable gap in the lack of resources available, Shana co-created the Social Good Guides, a series of 20 guides focused on the essential small-business skills that would-be changemakers need to know and an 8-week workshop called Social Good Startup: Idea To Launch.

Shana is an Aspen Institute Scholar, a member of the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, and a judge for The Webby Awards. In 2014 she became a Delegate to the United Nations Foundation Global Accelerator which brought together a “100 of the world’s top entrepreneurs to work together with policy leaders on global issues.” Shana was recently honored by the World CSR Congress as one of the 50 Most Talented Social Innovators. In addition to frequent travel to far-flung places, Shana loves all things chocolate, and makes her way around New York on a midnight blue Vespa. You can follow her @shanadressler and @sic_org.


Project Manager: Justine Lai
Copy Editor: Kelly Cooper and Gladie Helzberg
Web Developer: Keyue Bao
Consultant + Strategist: Marc O’Brien
Series Producer, Art Director + Editor: Shana Dressler

whydonate_green_fullbanner_whitetext_110614Three years in the making, the Social Good Guides are the result of the generous contributions of a team of esteemed authors, designers, copywriters, proofreaders, project managers, marketing consultants, researchers and interns. Initially conceived as a “nights-and-weekends” labor of love, the project quickly expanded beyond its original scope once we realized that accessible information about the essential small-business skills needed to build sustainable social impact organizations was missing in the social impact space.

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Text © 2015 Lee-Sean Huang
Cover © 2015 Mollie Ruskin
All other graphic design and elements © 2015 Social Innovators Collective.

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